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Aborted – A mushroom deformed or mutated by the growth of and or contact of a different mycelium.

Agar – phycocolloid produced by the red alga, Gelidium; used to solidify culture media used in mycology and bacteriology.

Casing Layer -The top dressing that is required to induce fruiting and cease mycelium production.

Contamination – Undesired foreign organisms (contaminants) in a growing medium. It often occurs due to insufficient sterilization, or improper sterile technique.

Culture – Mushroom Mycelium growing on a culture medium.

Flush – The sudden development of many Fruiting bodies at the same time. Usually there is a resting period between flushes.

Fruiting – The formation of the edible fruiting bodies of the fungus – that is, the mushrooms.

Heartwood – The old, dark-colored portion of the wood in the center of the tree trunk or limb.

Hyphae -Single strands of mushroom mycelium.

Incubation -The time after inoculation and before the mycelium has fully colonized its substrate. This step is done in a sterile environment to prevent/reduce contamination.  For logs, it is simply the period during which the logs are maintained under conditions favorable for the mycelium to grow throughout the sapwood of the log.

Inoculation -The process of introducing spores or mycelium culture into wood, or other substrate.

Mycelium -The vegetative part of a fungus, consist of many fine white filaments called Hyphae.

Mycorrhiza – A symbiotic association between a plant root and fungal hyphae.

Parasitic – Mushrooms that survive by attacking, and consuming other living organisms.

Pasteurization – Heat treatment applied to a substrate to destroy unwanted organisms but keeping favorable ones alive. The temperature range is 60°C to 80°C (140°F-175°F). The treatment is very different from Sterilization, which aims at destroying all organisms in the substrate.

Pinning – The process of forming primordia.

Primordia (pins or pinheads)-tiny fruiting mushrooms that are roughly 1/8 to 1/4 of inch in diameter.

Saprophytic - Mushrooms that survive by decomposing dead or decaying organic material. 

Sapwood – The young, light-colored portion of the wood near the outside of a log.

Sawdust Plunger – Tool for injecting sawdust into holes in a log.

Spawn Run – Incubation period during which the vegetative stage of the mycelium grows throughout the sapwood of the log.

Spawn -Rye, wheat, millet etc. are cook with water and sometime gypsum is added then it is all steam sterilized. Mycelium is added to whatever grain you used and are allowed to grow for 10-17 days. The mycelium will completely colonize (grow) on the grain and this is called spawn.

Spores -Mushroom spores are produced on the gill of the cap of the mushroom. There are microscopic and similar to seeds of higher plant life. Spores are used to spawn mushroom compost.

Sterilization – Completely destroying all micro-organisms present, by heat (autoclave, pressure cooker) or chemicals. Spawn substrate always has to be sterilized prior to inoculation.

Strain – A selected mushroom variety.

Substrate - the material the mushrooms live and grow on. Depending on the mushroom, the substrate maybe different. Some examples are compost, wood, sawdust, hay etc.

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